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Hidro+™ Hydrodynamic Power Technologies




Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technologies are innovative and patented technologies for power generation utilising natural phenomena, enabling the continuous conversion of Hydrostatic Pressure Potential Energy (HPPE).


Hidro+ Technologies is the R&D organization that developed the patented proprietary technology in Advanced Engineering of Hydrostatic Pressure to Coherent Energy System (AECES) for a system’s applied Ocean Hydrostatic Pressure Potential Energy Conversion (OPPEC). The ocean’s hydrostatic pressure is a constant natural occurrence and does not rely on ocean variability and geography, and consequently hydrostatic pressure is able to be created in a water-column on land for land applications. AECES technology enables the OPPEC closed-cycle to produce quantum-vectors for a continuous harnessing into coherent energy to do useful work to turn a turbine and an electric generator.

OPPEC=Ocean Hydrostatic Pressure Potential Energy Conversion.
OPPEC process=Applies hydrostatic pressure using AECES technology as an enabler for hydrostatic pressure to derived coherent energy into electricity and reformed as potential energy.
AECES technology=Advanced Engineering of Hydrostatic Pressure to Coherent Energy System technology. Applicable on Land.
AECES principle=Contemporaneous high inertia fluid and mass transfers.
AECES process-flow=Hydrodynamic closed-cycle system.


The energy balance for the system can be expressed as EC = EO-EL; where EC is Energy Input from the Continuous-Conversion of HPPE, EO is Energy Output (for conversion into electrical energy) and EL is Energy Losses (mechanical and friction). The potential energy harnessing and conversion into kinetic energy in a hydrodynamic-cycle process, utilising advanced hydro-mechanical kinematics, is the centre of the Technology-Innovations (TI). The result of this is a revolutionary engineering process system for generating clean energy that is emissions free, supplies power for 24 hours 365 days per year and functions as a base load or distributed generator, on the life-cycle that is environmentally friendly and capital cost competitive. Hidro+ Power Generating Plants can be deployed as fixed utility scale distributed generators within the vicinity of existing sub-stations, therefore alleviating transmission power losses from poles and wires, being ideal solutions for off-grid base-load and remote area electrification.


The Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technologies have World Patent Protection: PCT-AU2007/906961; AU2008/902488; AU2008/001888; AUS-PATENT2008/338258; with additional patents published by the World Intellectual Property Organisation [WIPO-Geneva] international publication number: WO2009/0876727. (See certificates for some of the many covered territories: South Africa, New Zealand, Morocco). Further patents for the new-scope and coverage, as well as new-modifications and enhancements, have also been granted under IPRP/PCT, by the International Patents Bureau.


An independent Scientific Validity Report into the Hidro+ Power Technologies has been written and published in a peer reviewed journal, the International Journal of Science and Technology. The paper has been authored by the respected Australian Physicist and Technology Researcher Dr. Wayne Nowland. Please click here to read more.




The Principles in Hidro+ Generator Technologies


It is based on pumped water storage and mass-energy transformations, where hydrostatic-pressure existence is a function of mass and gravity, both of which cannot be destroyed but, in a closed-system, can be transformed into energy; and its quantum is defined by mass x gravity over the exerted area.

When the mass moves under the acceleration of gravity onto an exerted area, the product of the velocity and hydrostatic pressure-force is Power. Thus the existing presence of mass and gravity means there is always an available source for mass-energy transformations to do specific work on various mechanical-processes. This is the centre of the Hidro+ Technologies innovations and where it differs, as it applies the 'Hydro-Mechanical' system; unlike the case where traditional, non-effective, inefficient 'Electro-Mechanical' drives are commonly used.

The above answers the following three (3) basic questions:

1. What is the renewable energy source?; Perpetual Gravity Force (PGF). This does not mean that Hidro+ is a so-called 'perpetual engine' or an example of 'perpetual motion', which does not exist. Gravitational force, however, is a constant that exists in perpetuity.
2. Why can it produce 250kW of power from 25m water tower?; As Force (N) is Head Pressure of Water column (hydrostatic) x Exerted Area (of the piston); and the hydrostatic implosion produces Velocity; and where Force x Velocity is Power.
[{250kPa x 1.1m/s} x 1m2 = 275kJ/s or kW].
3. Why the cycle can be repeated after the energy is taken out and surely it will need more energy to return the used-water?; As the used-water volume is only 2% of the total volume in the water column at all times, this means there is the existence of 98% mass-energy which is applied to return the 2% used-water. It is a closed-system cycle where the systolic-quantum equals on diastolic.


The law of conservation of mass, also known as the principle of mass/matter conservation, states that the mass in a closed-system can only be converted into energy. The mass-energy equivalence theorem states that mass conservation is equivalent to total energy conservation, which is the first law of thermodynamics. The mass-energy conservation is used in many aspects such as dynamic of machineries and fluid dynamics/mechanics; [as the case in Hidro+ technologies]. Read more about the Conservation of Mass at the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website here.



The Advantage:

The Hidro+ Generator is conceived for Distributed-Generators as reliable 24/7 base-load power supplies, resulting in zero power losses due to poles and wires.






Technology Highlights















Research and development conducted over a decade, which has been substantiated by various testing stages from proof of concept prototype, followed by the construction of an electricity generating demonstration unit, and finally completion and commissioning of a working pre-commercial power generating plant located at Mitchell Eco Industrial Estate, Stapylton in Queensland.

Selected by the United Nations for Climate Change (UNFCCC) to exhibit the technology at the International Climate Summits at COP 15 in Copenhagen (December 2009), and at COP 17 in Durban (December 2011).


Completed verifications on technical/engineering designs and documentations for the proposed commercial 1MW generating capacity module in Indonesia. This project, to be constructed by vendor, is for the Indonesian owner and funding party.

Granted EPA-Tasmania consent for the stage-one 100MW of a total proposed 1000MW generating capacity project at Wesley Vale, Davenport in Tasmania. This proposed project when completed would arguably be the first and largest renewable energy generating plant in the world. This project was initiated, held and is currently being progressed by the vendor independently.


Trained are highly experienced, competent professional engineers and technicians, well inducted in the technology modus operandi, both in Australia and overseas, that are ready for project deployments globally.


1. Click below to read the Hydrodynamic Power Technologies Technical Papers, of an introductory level, as presented at the 2011 World Renewable Energy Congress in Bali, Indonesia: Paper 1 (3.8MB PDF) and Paper 2 [Level 1 - Basic] (0.5MB PDF).


"From sub-tech to Cleantech, the Australian invention putting renewable energy in the ascendancy at UN COP17 summit."


2. Click here to read an article received for comment, regarding the status of the Hydrodynamic Power Technologies and its unveiling at the UN COP17 Summit in Durban, South Africa from November 28 to December 3, 2011. Author: Unknown.




Status of Current Projects


Anika Pharmaceutical, Queensland, Australia; 50kW co-generation plant.

* Power outputs will be a dedicated supply for the pharmaceutical facility and the waste-air applied for process-cooling.

* This project has been granted concurrence permits from the Gold Coast City Council, as the Local Government Authority. The project engineering documentations have been signed off for construction since August 2011, and are still pending project assessment and status confirmation being issued by the Energy Markets and Renewables Branch of the Australian Government's Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency in Canberra; the outcomes of which have effected other project-sites across Australia, including the Tasmanian project.


Tasmania, Australia; Utility scale power generation with 1000MW (1GWe) capacity.

      * This project upon completion would arguably be the first and largest renewable energy project of its kind in the world, supplying 24/7 power for 1.25million homes, abating 26.6millions of green house gas emissions annually, being similar to removing some 12million cars off the road.

      * Once completed, power outputs of up to 650MW in capacity will be supplied to Victorian grids via the Bass Strait link, with the balance being supplied to North and North East Tasmanian grids.

      * This project has received concurrence permits for stage-one, being 100MW capacity from the State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA Tas) under the State's Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (DPIWE).
      Click to view EPA Tas Letter of Assessment Advice

      * The Local Government Authorities' consent, before LaTrobe Shire Council, is being progressed.

      * This project was initiated, held and is currently being progressed by the vendor independently.


      These project developments, along with the proposed co-generation project in Queensland, and many other proposed development sites in Australia, are pending the Australian Federal Government's concurrence for the technology's renewable energy certification. Approval is sought for Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technologies to be certified under the category of "Other Clean Energy Technologies", in the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000. This category was an integral part of the legislation as originally introduced with the Act in the year 2000 (Section 5, Division 3, Clause 17), but it has since been removed during changes to the legislation in recent years. The reinstatement of this category would benefit the renewable energy industry, by again covering all electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources, that is renewable and sustainable, and meets criteria including but not limited to compliance with low-emission and zero-environmental impact legislation.


Various projects in Jakarta, Indonesia, with a total aggregate generation capacity of 20MWe.

* Project for 1MWe is underway with completion, commissioning and commercial operation expected July/August 2012.
* These projects are expected to receive carbon reduction units (CRU) under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); with the CRU expected to yield 19Euro/MWhr.
* This project, to be constructed by vendor, is for the Indonesian owner and funding party.


George City Council, South Africa; 1MW generating capacity.

* This project has received the Council's approvals and will be constructed at the Council's complex. The Local power generation consulting engineers, BDE-Consult, have been engaged as principle project engineers and management by the Local power-company developing this project.
* View the granted patent certificate for the Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technologies in South Africa here.
(Also New Zealand patent certificate here).



Below are samples from the technical drawings of a Type A: 1MWe Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Plant. The drawings were conceptualized, designed and developed by James Kwok, Copyright © 2011. All rights are reserved.


Technical drawings for a Type A: 1MWe Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Plant. Click for a larger image.



Hidro+ Super-Prime-Mover


Recent collaborative work conducted with an overseas shipping company has yielded blue-prints for the development of the Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technology Super-Prime-Mover [HSPM] with 135,000BHP power capacity for retrofit into existing large container ships, as a standard feature for newly constructed ships, or in the interim as a stand-alone HSPM Tow-Ship to tow existing larger container ships on Trans-Atlantic or extreme long-range distances (whilst the ship's existing engine is used for manoeuvring at harbor and port). 


A single operational HSPM that is equipped with an expander turbo-generator and linear electric generator machines to produce power for prime-propulsion, refrigeration and lighting, is expected to be capable of abating about 175million tons per year of carbon emissions.



Pre-Commercial Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Plant

In December 2010 James Kwok completed and commissioned a pre-commercial Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Plant with a 20kW capacity. This plant is the first-stage of its designed capacity, consisting of a 7m water tower with hydrostatic pressure harnessed via rack and pinion gears that power a flywheel to rotate a generator to produce electricity.


Located at Stapylton East in Queensland, Australia, the performance of this plant has been verified by independent engineers and Dr Rajinder Malik PhD, fluid mechanics expert previously with the University of Sydney. The plant technology and process-system have been validated and verified. The Hidro+ commercial plant technical and engineering designs and documentations have been expertly analysed and confirmed; and the conducted process optimisation-studies verified. One of the verification reports' conclusions are attached and can be viewed here. The author's full report will be annexed to James Kwok's technical journals upon publication.



Above: Pre-commercial Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Plant under a continuous performance and reliability test of over 24 hours



Above: Pre-commercial Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Plant during construction



Linear Electric Generator


In 2008 Professor Ion Boldea of Politehnica University, Timisoara Romania, joined James Kwok as a co-developer in the Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technology Linear Electric Generator. This is a joint patent between James Kwok and Professor Ion Boldea, and is currently world patent pending. Prof Boldea has been a Fellow of the IEEE since 1996 and has published extensively, in English, on the subject of rotary and linear electric machines and drives in the last 25 years. He is author and co-author of 13 books published in the U.S.A. and U.K. and holds 20 Romanian patents and one American patent which is now a commercial product.


Prof Boldea is member of IEEE-IAS EM and IDC committees, he has won 3 IEEE-IAS best-paper awards. He holds the 1976 Engineering Award (with S.A. Nasar) of the Romanian Academy of Sciences. Prof Boldea led a team that developed and built an industrial prototype (inverter-fed linear induction and, respectively, rotary induction-driven) subway system for 300 passengers and a linear homopolar synchronous motor-integrated propulsion-suspension MAGLEV: Magnibus-01 of 4 tones on a 150-meter test track.


Testing being conducted on the Linear Electric Generator




Technology Philosophy


The following nine points form the Hidro+ Applied Engineering Philosophy [HAEP] for the Hydrodynamic Power Technologies:



The pressure-gradients between any two (2) ports, as a confined boundary on a vertical liquid vessel, exist in a multitude of configurations and arrangements that will present as active, reactive and regenerative vectors pyramidally, where each is a potential energy constant until it is changed; if the static state is changed, pressure-gradients and force occur relative to position in the dynamic boundaries of an organic Water-Column, in a manner that is hereby referred to as the hydrodynamic-cycle.





The Water-Column is an always active form of series pressure-bands, an infinite number of which are in existence; and between any two pressure-bands in a confined-boundary, there is ΔP (pressure gradients) derivation in a manner that is infinite, and thus it is the renewable potential energy source, as: m[1- ∞] x gravity x h[1- ∞] [Nm]. As more than one-series of confined boundaries are mechanized to do various work as a derived mechanical advantage, the cycle is thus referred to as the hydrodynamic-cycle, where the non-exhaustive (replenishing) energy boundary prevails over the traditional (carnot-cycle) exhaustive linear energy boundary.



When there are two or more natural phenomena with potential energy arranged in a dynamic system, it is possible to harness a converted energy on a continuous basis from such system, unless or until changed and part of the system peaks to equilibration. The natural phenomena referred herein includes buoyancy and drag forces, gravity and gravitational forces, gas density gradients and displacement forces, hydrostatic water pressure and resultant forces, and water column hydrostatic pressure gradients net-vector thrusts to do work.



A Force acting at a specific-depth of a water-column and/or water-head pressure on a surface-area, is the only force quantum optimus exertion on that surface-area, at such specific-depth.


A Force acting at a specific-depth of a water-column and/or water-head pressure is equally exerted only within the specific-depth region.


The Applied-Force-Quantum at a specific-point of a water-column = Pressure / Area as the fundamental Pascal’s theorem is not applicable when a water-column chamber or vessel is less or greater than 1m² in area.



Hydrostatic Implosion of Fluid and Ejectility Factor. Please click here to read (PDF 0.5MB).



"Most of the mediocre just see that energy output comes from energy input (EIV) in an exhaustive linear energy boundary; a higher intellect will see energy output is a product of a potential energy (PEV) in a system; but the geniuses are those to see that when 2 or more “constants” with various potential energy exist in a system, it is possible to convert its various work done into usable energy on a continuous basis in a replenishing-cyclic energy boundary system.  The reality is in every case an actual or ‘expressed as’ energy output value from any system can not be greater of EIV x 0.8 or PEV x 0.8."



"Science and scientific hypotheses are likely to prevail in the absence of measurable and measured data; but when technical and engineering high-valued data is present, this shall always prevail above all science and scientific views; engineering high-value data is the product of higher knowledge and competencies, but not of engineering mediocrity."


"Whilst the scientist hypothesizes matters and critiques, the engineer builds the complete system, modifying for better outcomes and efficiency."



"Pure Science: is theoretical concepts; Applied Science: is the tools;and Pure Engineering: is higher knowledge above common science and engineering. "


Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technology is an Original Cleantech Technology, being a new technology breakthrough and a product of the highest and original Pure Engineering achievements.

James Kwok





Development and Specifications


The Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technologies have been developed and progressed by James Kwok over a period of more than ten years since the initial bench-tests in 1998. Prototyping and a complete Demonstration Unit were constructed prior to the current pre-commercial plant in Stapylton, Queensland Australia.


Bench-tests and prototyping


Hidro+ Hydrodynamic Power Technology Demonstration Unit being assembled in the Republic of Indonesia



©The Technology’s hydrodynamic closed-cycle (JK Hidro-Cycle™), is based on high inertia fluid and mass transfer cycles; where 2% of volume contained in storage-tower is the fluid/working-fluid, i.e. approximately 2.5m3 or equal to 2.5tons in mass of 1,000 standard home-bricks.


©The Technology’s dynamic machineries (JK Hidro-Engine™), is an advanced engineering for hydrostatic pressure potential energy (HPPE) conversion into coherent energy system.

©The contemporaneous phases means, JK Hidro-Engine™ enables JK Hidro-Cycle™ to convert HPPE to derived coherent energy, to do work on a turbo-generator, and reforms into HPPE, for cycle continuum.